During the 18th century, many African Americans were slaves, ex-slaves or generally ignored by the public. There are therefore few African American writers from this time period, but the ones who were able to write are groundbreakers.
Phillis Wheatley was the first African American woman to publish a book and the first African American poet. In the 1760s, she was kidnapped in Western Africa and sold into slavery. She was taught to read and write, and in 1773 she wrote a collection of poems, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. It gained national attention, even coming to be praised by George Washington.
Lucy Terry wrote the oldest known work of fiction by an African American. She was kidnapped in Africa and sold into slavery as an infant. Her freedom was purchased by Abijah Prince, a freed African American man, whom she then married. Her work, “Bars Fight” is a ballad about an attack by Native Americans on two white families in an area known as The Bars.
Jupiter Hammon was the first African American to be published in the then newly independent United States of America (Wheatley’s collection of poems was first published in London before being published in the United States). A poet who was born into slavery, he never experienced emancipation, but in his famous Hammon address he said, "If we should ever get to Heaven, we shall find nobody to reproach us for being black, or for being slaves."
The 19th Century
The Civil War had been fought, and the slaves were freed. Many more African Americans had access to good quality education, and many authors wrote about the struggles of ex-slaves, both when they were enslaved and when they were freed.
W.E.B. Du Bois, Frederick Douglass, and Booker T. Washington are perhaps the most famous African American authors at this time. Du Bois was the first African American to earn a doctorate, graduating from Harvard, and he was a founder of the NAACP. He wrote prolifically about what he called the “Negro Problem”, how African Americans felt about being considered problematic in society.
Douglass became famous after publishing his autobiography about his life as a slave. White society was shocked to discover that slaves could be compelling and eloquent, and he took advantage of his new-found fame to promote equal rights for all people.
Washington, unlike Du Bois and Douglass, was born in the Deep South and was intimately acquainted with the feelings of southern white people to their newly freed slaves. His writings were collections of his speeches trying to advance the causes of African Americans across the country.
Other writers were working at this time as well. Octavia V. Rogers Albert interviewed former slaves in Louisiana to use as the basis for her book The House of Bondage. Like Washington, Charles Chesnutt wrote about the experience of ex-slaves in the post-Civil War south, but much of his work was fictionalized. Elizabeth Keckley was a freed slave who became the seamstress of Mary Todd Lincoln. Keckley wrote a book about her work with Mrs. Lincoln called Behind the Scenes. William Wells Brown wrote the first novel written by an African American, Clotel, which was published in London, where he lived at the time.
The early 20th Century
The 20th century saw many African American writers come to the forefront of the literary world. The Harlem Renaissance and the Civil Rights era created a fertile ground for writing.
Anne Spencer spanned the gap between the writers of the 19th and 20th centuries. She socialized with Langston Hughes, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., and W. E. B. Du Bois, among many others, and she was the first African American to have her poetry included in the Norton Anthology of American Poetry.
Langston Hughes wrote in just about every format, but he was particularly feted for his work in poetry. He brought musical sensibilities to poetry, giving rise to the jazz poetry that helped define the style of the Harlem Renaissance.
Zora Neal Hurston was famous during the Harlem Renaissance, but her work had fallen out of favor for several decades. She was reintroduced to the world in 1975 by Alice Walker, and she has stayed in the canon of American literature ever since.
James Baldwin wrote in the middle of the century, publishing his first book in 1955. His work explored the racial, sexual and class distinctions of his time, looking particularly at the unspoken rules that governed people’s behavior.
The late 20th and very early 21st Century
It is early into the century, so most writers today have also written in the 20th century. These days, African American authors are no longer restricted to issues relating to race, instead exploring genres like horror and sci-fi in fiction and contemporary issues in poetry.
Maya Angelou is the legendary poet, essayist and autobiographer well known for her book I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. That book was a crucial contribution to African American feminism literature.
Toni Morrison has written many novels, including Beloved. She has received many awards for her writings, including the Pulitzer Prize, the Nobel Prize for Literature and the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
Alice Walker is most famous for writing The Color Purple, in which she uses the backdrop of 1930s Georgia to explore issues facing women and African Americans.
Rita Dove is the first African American to serve as the Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress and the second African American to win the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry. Her writings include On the Bus with Rosa Parks.
ZZ Packer was highly lauded as an up and coming writing talent in her youth, and her subsequent output has proved that early praise correct. She has written Drinking Coffee Elsewhere and is currently the Writer-in-Residence at Tulane University.
Samuel R. Delany is a renowned science fiction author. Winner of four Nebula and two Hugo awards, he has written titles including Babel-17, Nova, and the Return to Nevèrÿon series.
David Anthony Durham concentrates his talent on the historical fiction and fantasy genres. His notable titles include Gabriel’s Story, which follows African American settlers as they make their way out west, and the Acacia Trilogy, an epic fantasy trilogy that is praised for its fully developed alternate world and the way it turns many fantasy tropes on their heads.
Ordering online is easy, a time saving convenience most of us have discovered by now. Ordering ink online, something you don’t have to try on or look at, is brilliant. The best part, you can stay stocked up and never have an annoying crunch time run to the store because you are out of ink. When a paper is due, or tickets need to be printed, you will be prepared. All you need is your printer model number. You can probably see that while you are ordering online.
To ensure that you place the order to suit your needs, follow these simple steps now.
Go to Clickinks.com
Type in your printer model number in the pink search bar
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We are pleased to announce the winner of our poetry competition on New Beginnings is Forrest Brunet! Congratulations!
Thank you to everyone who took part. The standard of entries was extremely high and it was a pleasure to read them.
Here is Forrest's poem:
I don’t remember who we used to be, all the memories are fading away
So here i am, begging for the right to listen. Will you just play me our song,
Then maybe i can move on with all our strings intact?
Standing in meadows, wind brushing away the past
Laughter poured down like rain, swept the scars down through the gates
Our hands no longer holding because now isn’t the time for foolery
Cracked lips make broken smiles, delicate curves no longer fitting perfectly
pictures burn in the open fire, we became ashes when letting go was our only option
did we not know that there was another way to forget the pain we caused?
I don’t remember who we used to be, all the memories are fading away
So here i am, begging for the right to listen. will you just play me our song,
Then i might move on with all our separate strings intact
There’s a line from a song we used to sing, i don’t believe we can start over again
Tears were whipped away and cries were left behind, does that mean war is ended now?
Everything fell into place then out again, but there must be something beyond these walls
Now here i play, our remix, a story of life. with these cords and every note
A melody we used to share, these lyrics mean nothing without each other
But that doesn’t matter to you, so just pay attention, you can’t miss what i need to say…
I don’t remember who we used to be, all the memories faded away
So here i am, begging for you to listen. i’ll play you our song,
Then finally move on with all my strings intact
The Victorian era, from 1837 to 1901, marks out the reign of Queen Victoria. The British Empire was at its height and the Industrial Revolution was underway, giving the British nation an unprecedented period of prosperity and national confidence. The Victorian era saw a move from the rationalism of the Georgian period towards romanticism and mysticism in broader society. This was, of course, then reflected in the art of the period.
The decorative and visual arts of the Victorian period incorporated the revival of historic romantic styles with the Asian aesthetics that were becoming more prevalent because of the reach of the British Empire. They used these styles to explore ideas of the self, nature, life events, tragedy and emotions and other romantic ideals, like the role of art in, and the responsibility of the artist to, society.
John Everett Millais and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
John Everett Millais was one of the founding members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, one of the most influential British art groups of the Victorian era. The original group – Millais, D.G. Rossetti and William Holman Hunt, later joined by W.M. Rossetti, James Collinson, Frederic George Stephens and Thomas Woolner – felt that art had become too stylized and untruthful since the early Renaissance, so they looked to a time before the emergence of Raphael to find inspiration for modern art. They started by painting the opposite of whatever the Royal Academy was teaching its students. If the academy taught students to paint with one major source of light, deep shadows and soft colors, the Pre-Raphaelites painted a brightly colored scene that was flooded with light.
Millais was arguably the best known of the group, though perhaps not the leader of the movement. He gained entry into the Royal Academy at the remarkable age of 11. It was there that he met Hunt and Rossetti and formed the Brotherhood. Initially his style was controversial. He painted Christ in the House of His Parents, which depicted Jesus and his family in their poorly furnished, untidy home. This caused a major outcry, as it was seen as vulgar in its depiction of the holy family as normal, poor people. After marrying his wife and starting a family, he began to paint in a less confrontational style. He was described as a sell-out by some, while others complimented his growth, citing an artistic connection to Whistler and other artists.
Joseph Paxton and Victorian architecture
Joseph Paxton is one of the best known Victorian architects, not least because he designed the famous Crystal Palace for the Great Exhibition. Paxton fell into architecture: he started his career as a garden boy, and, after becoming the protégé of his employer, the Duke of Devonshire, moved into garden and eventually building designs. It was his experience designing greenhouses that inspired both the design of the Crystal Palace and his passion for incorporating steel into buildings.
It was the introduction of steel and other products resulting from the Industrial Revolution that allowed Victorian buildings to scale new heights and become more ornate than previous buildings. Victorians could create with metal and paint the ornamentations that previously could only be done by stonecutters and painters working meticulously. This led to a revival in elaborate styles, including Gothic Revival (typified by St Pancras station in London), Renaissance Revival (such as the Central Library in Edinburgh) and Romanesque Revival (seen in The Natural History Museum in London).
Julia Margaret Cameron and the rise of photography
Julia Margaret Cameron was born in Calcutta in 1815 and was likely introduced to the photographic process by her friend and renowned developer of photography Sir John Herschel. She immediately began working on the various aspects of creating photographs, from staging compositions to developing the film and assembling photo albums. It was not until she was 48, however, that she received her first camera. She quickly began experimenting with techniques, scratching negatives, printing from cracked or smudged negatives, and photographing things out of focus. These techniques were highly criticized by some, but she also was awarded with many prestigious honors, including a gold medal in 1866 in Berlin.
Although photography had been developed at the beginning of the 19th century, the processes of capturing and developing photographs were constantly being improved. Still, from the very beginning, photographers tried to advance photography as an art form, leading the first photographers to capture images that depicted religious icons, landscapes, contrasts in light and other typically artistic subjects.
The Great Exhibition
The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations was an international exhibition held in 1851. The first in a series of World’s Fairs, it was organized by Henry Cole and Prince Albert to showcase the advancements of the time, and especially those of Great Britain. The exhibition’s aim was to ultimately show that Britain was the undisputed leader in the industrial age. Among the more than 13,000 displays were Mathew Brady’s daguerreotypes, Samuel Colt’s newest revolver, a precursor to the fax machine and a reaping machine from the United States.
The Crystal Palace was built to house the exhibition. Taking only nine months from concept to finished building, the glass and cast iron building covered 990,000 square feet and saw six million people come through its doors during the exhibition. The invention of cast plate glass, which was cheaper and stronger than other glass, allowed the structure to be completely clear. It was the most glass many of the visitors had ever seen, creating a dazzling impression that led to its name. After the exhibition closed, the palace was moved to Sydenham Hill, but was reconstructed in such a different way that it was almost unrecognizable as the home of the Great Exhibition. It continued to be used after the Victorian era, notably being the site of the Festival of Empire in 1911 which marked the coronation of George V. Soon, the costs of maintenance became too high, leading the building to fall into disrepair. Eventually, the building was destroyed by a fire in 1936.
The end of the Victorian era saw the introduction of aesthetic movements like the Arts and Crafts, Art Nouveau, and Anglo Japanese styles. All these artworks and new developments have had a lasting impact on British society, both in the art world and in the public world in general.
Do you ever feel like getting something printed is a fight? Maybe, it actually is. Do you think your computer and printer have these discussions?
by Streeter Seidell at Collegehumor.com
Computer: Monitor, display this document, ok?
Monitor: No prob, boss.
Computer: OK, now it looks like Mouse is moving around so, Monitor, will you move the pointer icon accordingly?
Monitor: Anything you ask, boss.
Computer: Great, great. OK, Mouse, where are you going now?
Mouse: Over to the icon panel, sir.
Computer: Hmm, Let me know if he clicks anything, OK?
Mouse: Of course.
Keyboard: Sir, he's pressed control and P simultaneously.
Monitor: Oh God, here we go.
Computer: i>sighs Printer, are you there?
Computer: Please, Printer. I know you're there.
Printer: NO! I'm not here! Leave me alone!
Computer: Jesus. OK look, you really ne…
Mouse: Sir, he's clicked on the printer icon.
Computer: Printer, now you have to print it twice.
Printer: NO! NO! NO! I don't want to! I hate you! I hate printing! I'm turning off!
Computer: Printer, you know you can't turn yourself off. Just print the document twice and we'll leave you alone.
Printer: NO! That's what you always say! I hate you! I'm out of ink!
Computer: You're not out of in…
Printer: I'M OUT OF INK!
Computer: span style="font-style: italic;">Sighs Monitor, please show a low ink level alert.
Monitor: But sir, he has plen…
Computer: Just do it, damn it!
Monitor: Yes sir.
Keyboard: AHHH! He's hitting me!
Computer: Stay calm, he'll stop soon. Stay calm, old friend.
Keyboard: He's pressing everything. Oh god, I don't know, he's just pressing everything!
Computer: PRINTER! Are you happy now?! Do you see what you've done?!
Printer: HA! that's what you get for trying to get me to do work. Next time he…hey…HEY! He's trying to open me! HELP! HELP! Oh my god! He's torn out my cartridge! HELP! Please! ERROR!
Monitor: Sir, maybe we should help him?
Computer: No. He did this to himself.
The printer can save you alot of money, and give you a great resource, when educating and entertaining the little ones. You can print coloring pages, worksheets and more!
We found Free BOB Book Printables! These are absolutely great for teaching the little ones to read.
Information to teach kids why they have the day off on January 21st, and entertain them while at home with free printables on Martin Luther King.
You can keep the kids entertained on any rainy day with Crayola's printable games and coloring pages.
The printer really does come in handy, instead of purchasing all of these activities. Let us know if you have found any other great printables.
With the start of the New Year we all become focused on making resolutions and turning over a new leaf. This is why we would like you to write a poem on ‘new beginnings’.
The competition is open to applicants of all ages, whether you are a budding or experienced writer, we want your poems!
It can be written in any style, as long as it’s no more than 45 lines and must be your own work.
The winner will receive $100 worth of Amazon vouchers, to spend on whatever you wish!
To enter, email firstname.lastname@example.org by midnight EST on February 11, 2013.
• Poetry theme: New Beginnings
• Open to everyone worldwide
• No entry fee
• Must be the original work of the entrant
• No more than 45 lines
• Poems must be in English
• Deadline: 12:00 am on Monday, February 11, 2013
Now we don’t want to sound all ‘bah humbug’, but the holiday season is a time when you let your guard down a bit. There are a few more glasses of sherry than usual, there’s goodwill all around and a sense of celebration that makes you more vulnerable than usual. Here are our top tips for looking after your safety, your valuables, your home and your health over the festive period.
On the town
When you’re out celebrating try to make sure you do the following:
- Choose busy routes with good lighting when you’re walking
- Never take your car on a night out when you’ll be drinking – leave the keys at home
- Only use registered taxi firms and keep a number in your purse or wallet at all times
- Wear your bag with the strap across your body
- Know how you’re going to get home at the end of the night.
On your own turf
Home Alone got one thing right; crooks love Christmas. Make sure you take the following steps to stop your gifts from going walkabout:
- Store your presents away from windows and out of view from the street
- Make sure your burglar alarm and outside lighting is in good working order
- Mark any new items with your postcode or take a note of the serial or model number
- Don’t keep your keys near the front door; persistent thieves have been known to hook them out through the letterbox.
One the road
Keep yourself and your wheels out of trouble this year by making sure you:
- Never leave your car unattended while it’s defrosting
- Always keeping your doors and windows locked
- Make sure you keep valuables out of sight, or better still out of your car
- Watch your speed; Christmas roads call for vigilance due to ice patches and over-the-limit drivers.
Have a great Christmas! From everyone at Clickinks.com
Christmas is coming, and with it many expenses, but do it yourself crafts make the holiday special, and save you money. You already have the ink, use card stock or colored paper if you have it, otherwise your regular paper will work great, and save you a trip to the store when Santa arrives with more gifts than tags. We found some lovely Free Printable Gift Tags
For the little ones looking for that special gift from the Jolly man, we found an easy to use Letter to Santa Printable
And for that special home made gift, made with love, you can adhere these seasonal tags to Hershey's kisses! What a sweet idea! The Christmas Hershey's Kiss Printables include 11 design's and are a great gift for anyone on your list!
What home made gifts do you like to give? Let us know in the comments!
With our increasingly fast computers, VPN technology and the beloved cloud, many more employees can work from home than ever before. Working at home is not just for the stay at home mom any more. You often see cases of contractors, small business owners and other professionals telecommuting, leaving them in their home office the majority of the year.
With working from home comes a new breed of challenges, keeping paper and ink stocked, and distractions down may top the list.
Here are some tips that may help you.
Go to work
You must physically act as if you are going to work, to get yourself in the proper mind set. Take a morning shower, get dressed, even if not in suit and tie just get out of those flannel pajamas, and go to an office area in your home, designated as where you have no television, children or other distractions.
This sounds easier than it is, set a closing time and stick to it. You need to leave the office and walk away, for the good of yourself and your family. Keep the distinction so you don’t get burned out, and so you are willing to enter the office again on Monday morning.
Set office rules
Your mother-in-law may think it is ok to call on you, neighbors may think it is ok to pop over and kids may think it is ok to run into the office. Expectations need to be set with other during office hours, whether it looks like it or not, when you are in the office area, you are at work.
Contractors and small business owners should be getting out in the community and networking at least once a week, talk to others, learn what’s new in your field, and hopefully gain more business in the process.
If you are an employee, speak to a co-worker every day, find out the need to know information, and even make a little small talk.
The best advice for working from home is to treat the job, hours, focus, and office conditions the same as you would if you were in the office, without the high cost of fuel.
Do you ever work from home? Share with us your best advice!